A failure analysis expert witness performed a rivet fialure analysis of a rivet involved in a ladder failure. The failed rivet, which is a hollow end rivet, was found to be too short for the intended application. The photo on the upper left is a cross section of the failed rivet in question. The clinch allowance of this rivet was inadequate and over time the folded over portion failed from fatigue and allowed the joint to open. The center photograph is of a similar rivet. One can see that this rivet has very little left to grip on the hollow end. This rivet has not failed; however, it does show significant deterioration. Upper right is a rivet that has the proper clinch allowance. In additon, this rivet does not show any signs of deterioration.